### Who are we?

A group of leading Ukrainian teachers from Physics & Mathematics Lyceum in Kherson and Kharkiv Physics & Mathematics Lyceum #27 and a group of scientists led by Leiden University professor Alexey Boyarsky.

For a long time, our teachers not only teach physics at the highest level, but also conduct physical competitions in Ukraine, work as the jury of olympiads and competitions, are the authors of a large number of physics problems, have their textbooks, state awards, and scientific degrees. Among their students are dozens of prize winners of international olympiads in physics, astronomy, Young Physicists’ Tournament, Genius Olympiad, and many other international competitions. And at your age, they were the winners of these competitions!

### What do we offer?

- Free physics education for students of grades 8-11.
- The equivalent of a full-time study in physics according to the program of the best physics and mathematics lyceums of Ukraine together with leading teachers and scientists. The program of the school is fully coordinated with the program of study of physics in specialized schools in Ukraine. It is based on our methods of teaching and training from experienced teachers of our school and corresponds to the level of physics and mathematics schools.
- The possibility of in-depth study of physics and going beyond the school curriculum.
- Study of “non-dry” physics with a scientific approach and the opportunity to communicate with practicing scientists.
- Additional development of the necessary mathematical apparatus.
- Solving Olympiad-level problems.
- The possibility of communication with a wide range of students throughout Ukraine.

### Format

**How is the program structured?** Classes at the school will be held in parallel for students of different levels (grades 8-11). The teaching of the course from each parallel necessarily begins with an in-depth repetition of the material of the previous year and mastering the necessary mathematical apparatus. The teaching of each of the topics begins with the basic material, definitions, and laws, and goes into solving problems of an increasingly complex level and linking them to other topics.

**Where will the classes be held?** The school will be held online on the Zoom platform. It is not necessary to install the application – you can also join through a web browser.

**When do classes start?** The school has already begun at the beginning of July 2022 and will last approximately 5 months. Classes are held three times a week at 18.00 Kyiv time. The approximate duration of the lesson is 1.5 astronomical hours. However, the creative process is irregular, and if there is a need for longer communication, we will continue it with everyone who wants to.

Starting from September, the start time of classes may be changed in connection with the beginning of the educational process in regular schools.

**How will the classes be held?** This school is optional. Attending classes is free – you can join and leave classes at any time. Students can register for any parallel if there is a desire to fill in the gaps in some previous topics, or learn about topics that will be studied at the end of the 11th grade. In addition to face-to-face classes, students will regularly receive homework.

**How much does studying cost?** The school is free! But everyone is welcome to support our teachers:

### Who is this school for?

The school is primarily aimed at students in grades 8-11 who were forced to leave their homes due to the war or are under occupation. And also for all those who, for one reason or another, do not have the opportunity to receive a high-quality education in the physical and mathematical profile. Even though the school’s teachers work in lyceums in the cities of Kherson and Kharkiv, the school **is open to all students interested in physics.**

Since the lessons are free to attend, the student can move to a higher or lower level at any time, depending on the student’s preparation. We do not divide into grades by age – only by level of knowledge.

### Lessons schedule

Classes will be held on Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays at 6 p.m. Kyiv time.

The teachers will change according to the topics that take place in the different grades. Current schedule:

Grade | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 |

Teacher | Gelfgat | Yuhai | Pashko | Oliinyk |

Topic | Repetition | Mechanics | Kinematics | Electrostatics |

#### Study plan:

#### 8th grade

#### Mechanics

Average and instantaneous velocity. Force, equilibrant force. Types of forces: gravity, friction, normal reaction, Archimedes’, spring forces. Energy and work.

#### Thermodynamics

Temperature, thermal equilibrium, internal energy, heat capacity. Phase transitions, properties of condensation and evaporation, combustion heat. Energy conservation efficiency of heating/cooling machines.

#### Electricity

Charge, structure of atoms and ions. Charge conservation. Coulomb’s law. Electric field, potential, work of electric field. Voltage, current, resistance, Ohm’s law. Ammeter and voltmeter. Work and power of electric current, Joule-Lenz law. Electric circuit calculations. Electric current in gasses and electrolites.

#### 9th grade

#### Mechanics

Vector projection and summation. Trigonometric functions. Pythagoras theorem, laws of sines and cosines.

Dynamics. Velocity as a vector. Distance and displacement. Equilibrant force. Free fall, circular motion.

#### Magnetism

Magnetic phenomena: magnets, Oersted experiment, Ampere’s force. Magnetic field. Biot-Savart law. Lorentz force. Magnetic flux, Faraday’s law of induction

#### Optics

Sources of light. Speed of light. Light rays, laws of rectilinear propagation, reflection, and refraction. Spherical mirrors, lenses.

#### Oscillations and waves

Mechanical waves and their properties. Amplitude, frequency, wavelength, speed of sound waves. Electromagnetic waves. Emission and reception of EM waves. EM spectrum.

#### Nuclear and particle physics

Structure of atoms and nuclei, Rutherford model. Radioactivity. Law of radioactive decay. Binding energy, mass defect.

#### 10th grade

#### Physics as a science

Physical units. Measurements, experimental uncertainty. Relation between physics and math.

#### Mechanics

Relative motion. Addition of velocities. Frame of reference, radius-vector, trajectory. Acceleration. Newton laws. Motion of a body under earth’s gravity. Motion in non-inertial frames of reference. Circular and rotational motion. Newton’s gravitational law. Motion of celestial objects, Kepler’s laws. Hydrodynamics. Elastic and inelastic scatterings.

Basic introduction to differentiation and integration.

#### Oscillations and waves

Kinetic and potential energy of oscillations, energy conservation. Forced oscillations. Resonance. Standing and travelling waves. Doppler effect.

#### Thermodynamics

Introduction to kinetic theory of gases. Thermal average and fluctuations. Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Temperature as average kinetic energy. Ideal gas law. Real gasses, Van der Waals equation.

#### 11th grade

#### Electromagnetism

Gauss theorem. Capacity and capacitors, energy density of electric field. Conductors and insulators. Kirchhoff’s circuit laws. Current in metals and semiconductor.

Biot-Savart law, Ampere and Lorentz forces. Motion of charges in electromagnetic field. Faraday’s experiment. Induction and inductors. Energy density of magnetic field.

Oscillations in circuits. Resonance. Electromagnetic waves. Radio.

Interference and diffraction of light. Young’s interference experiment. Diffraction grating.

#### Introduction to quantum mechanics and relativity

Principle of relativity. Speed of light. Relativistic addition of velocities. Length contraction. Relativistic dynamics.

Light quanta. Light pressure. Photoelectric effect.

Atomic and nuclear physics. Nuclear decay. Nuclear reactor.